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Our remarkably human-like robots are built on more than a dozen years of artificial intelligence and robotics research. Want to learn more? Check out our team’s collected works, papers, presentations and inventions, below.


Bar-Cohen, Y., Hanson, D. The coming robot revolution: Expectations and fears about emerging intelligent, humanlike machines. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

Bergman, M., Zhuang, Z., Hanson D,. Heimbuch B,. McDonald M, Palmieroa A, Shaffera R, Harnish D, Husband M, Wander J. “Development of an Advanced Respirator Fit-Test Headform”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 11(2). 204. pages 117-125. PDF

De Garis, H., Shuo, C., Goertzel, B. and Ruiting, L. A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part I: Large-scale brain simulations. Neurocomputing74,1-3, (2010), pp. 3-29. PDF

Diprose, J. P., et al. “How people naturally describe robot behaviour.” Proceedings of Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation. 2012. PDF

david hanson uncanny valley paper cover

Everitt, Tom, Ben Goertzel, and Alexey Potapov. “Artificial General Intelligence.” Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Heidelberg (2017).

Germans, D., et al. “VIRPI: a high-level toolkit for interactive scientific visualization in virtual reality.” Immersive Projection Technology and Virtual Environments 2001. Springer, Vienna, 2001. 109-120. PDF

Germans, D.M., et al. “Measuring in virtual reality: a case study.” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 57.6 (2008): 1177-1184. PDF

Goertzel, B. “Should humanity build a global AI nanny to delay the singularity until it’s better understood?.” Journal of consciousness studies 19.1-2 (2012): 96-111. PDF

Goertzel, B., et al. “Loving AI: Humanoid Robots as Agents of Human Consciousness Expansion (summary of early research progress).” Cornell University Laval (2017): 1-16. PDF 

Goertzel, B. “Infusing advanced AGIs with human-like value systems: Two theses.” Journal of Evolution and Technology 26.1 (2016): 50-72. PDF 

Goertzel, B. “From abstract agents models to real-world AGI architectures: Bridging the gap.” International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Springer, Cham, 2017. PDF

Goertzel, Ben, et al. “A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures.” Neurocomputing 74.1-3 (2010): 30-49. PDF

Goertzel, B., Hanson,. D, Yu, G., “A Roadmap for AGI for Humanoid Robotics”, ICRA Hong Kong, AGI for Humanoid Robotics, Workshop Proceedings, 2014.

Habib A, Das S, Bogdan IC, Hanson D, Popa D, “Learning Human-like Facial Expressions for the Android Philip K. Dick”, ICRA 2014, Hong Kong, AGI for Humanoid Robotics, Workshop Proceedings, 2014.

Hanson, D. “Expanding the aesthetic possibilities for humanoid robots.” IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots. 2005. PDF

Hanson, D., et al. “Enhancement of EAP actuated facial expressions by designed chamber geometry in elastomers.” Smart Structures and Materials 2006: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD). Vol. 6168. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006.

Hanson, D., et al. “Zeno: A cognitive character.” AI Magazine, and Special Proceedings of AAAI National Conference, Chicago. 2009. PDF

Hanson, D. “Robotics in the World of Entertainment.” Bulletin of the American Physical Society 56 (2011).

Hanson, D., The Need for Creativity, Aesthetics, and the Arts in the Design of Increasingly Intelligent Humanoid Robots, ICRA Workshop on General Intelligence for Humanoid Robots, 2014.

Hanson, D. “Progress toward EAP actuators for biomimetic social robots.” Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2013. Vol. 8687. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013.

Hanson D, Human emulation robot system, US Patent 8,594,839, 2013.

Hanson D. “Intelligent, Embodied Animation–when art comes to life, literally,” Annual Conference for the Society for Animation Studies, hosted by the USC School for Cinematic Arts, 2013.

Hanson, D. “Progress towards EAP Actuators for social robots“, SPIE ElectroActive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), San Diego, 2013.

Hanson, David, et al. “Upending the uncanny valley.” AAAI. Vol. 5. 2005. PDF

Hanson, D., Lowcre, M. M. M. Organic creativity and the physics within. Philadelphia, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2012.

Hanson, D., Mazzei, D., Garver, C., De Rossi, D., Stevenson, M., ”Realistic Humanlike Robots for Treatment of ASD, Social Training, and Research; Shown to Appeal to Youths with ASD, Cause Physiological Arousal, and Increase Human-to-Human Social Engagement”, PETRA (Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environment), 2012. PDF

Hanson, D. “Robotics in the World of Entertainment”, American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting, 2011 adsabs.harvard.edu, March 21-25, 2011.

Hanson, D., Baurmann S., Riccio, T., Margolin, R., Dockins, T., Tavares, M., Carpenter, K., “Zeno: a cognitive character, ” AI Magazine, and special Proc. of AAAI National Conference, Chicago, 2009.

Hanson D., White V. “Converging the Capabilities of ElectroActive Polymer Artificial Muscles and the Requirements of Bio-inspired Robotics”, Proc. SPIE‘s Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices Conf., 10TH Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, San Diego, USA, 2004.

Hanson, D. “The Neural Basis of the Uncanny Valley”, graduate research paper for Alice O‘Toole in UTD Brain Sciences. Sept, 2003. HTML

the in between machine desmond germans research hanson robotics sophia david hansonHanson D., “Chapter 18: Applications for Electrically Actuated Polymer Actuators,” in Electrically Actuated Polymer Actuators as Artificial Muscles, Bar-Cohen Y. (Ed.) SPIE PRESS, Washington, USA, Vol. PM98, 2nd ed. March 2004.

Hanson, D., Rus D., Canvin S., Schmeirer G., “Applications of Bio-inspired Robotics”, Ch.10 of Biologically Inspired Intelligent Robots. Bar-Cohen, Y and Breazeal, C. (Ed.) SPIE Press, May 2003.

Hanson, D. “EAP Actuator Design for Biologically-inspired Face-Based Communication Robots”. Proc. SPIE‘s Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices Conf., 9th Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, San Diego, USA, 2003.

Hanson, D. “Bio-inspired Facial Expression Interface for Emotive Robots”, Proc. AAAI National Conference in Edmonton, CA, 2002.

Hanson, D., De Rossi, D. “HEFES: An Hybrid Engine for Facial Expressions Synthesis to Control Human-Like Androids and Avatars”, The Fourth IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, 2012.

Hanson D. and Pioggia G., “Entertainment Applications for Electrically Actuated Polymer Actuators,” Ch 18 of Electrically Actuated Polymer Actuators as Artificial Muscles, SPIE PRESS, Washington, USA, Vol. PM98, Ch. 18, 2001.

Hanson D., Pioggia G., Bar-Cohen Y., De Rossi D., “Androids: Application of EAP as Artificial Muscles to Entertainment Industry,” Proc. SPIE‘s Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices Conf., 7th Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, Newport Beach, USA, 2001. Caltech JPL EAPAD newsletter, artificial muscle articles and editorials: 2001, fall 2002, 2004, 2006.

Hanson D., Priya S. “An Actuated Skin for Robotic Facial Expressions, NSF Phase 1 Final Report”, National Science Foundation STTR award, NSF 05- 557, 2006-2007.

Desmond Germans research Hanson Robotics optics

Hoorn, J.F., Konijn, E.A., Germans, D.M., Burger, S. and Munneke, A. The In-between Machine. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence-Volume2 (pp. 464-469). SCITEPRESS-Science and Technology Publications, Lda. 2015. PDF

Kolonin, A., Goertzel, B., Duong, D. and Ikle, M., 2018. A Reputation System for Artificial Societies. arXiv:1806.07342, 2018. PDF. 

Lian, R., Goertzel, B., Vepstas, L., Hanson, D. and Zhou, C., 2017. Symbol Grounding via Chaining of Morphisms. arXiv:1703.04368. PDF

Oh, J.H., Hanson, D. Kim, D., et al. “Design of android type humanoid robot Albert HUBO.” Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on. IEEE, 2006. PDF 

Pioggia G., Hanson D., Dinelli S., Di Francesco F., Francesconi R., De Rossi D. “The Importance of Nonverbal Expression to the Emergence of Emotive Artificial Intelligence Systems”, Proc. SPIE‘s Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices Conf., 8th Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, San Diego, USA, 2003.

Ranatunga, I., Torres N., Stevenson M., Patterson R., Hanson D., Bugnariu N., Popa, D. “RoDiCA a Human-Robot Interaction System for Early Diagnosis of Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders”, IROS, 2012.

Renambot, Luc, Bal, H. E., Germans, D., Spoelder, H. J. “Cavestudy: an infrastructure for computational steering in virtual reality environments.” High-Performance Distributed Computing, 2000. Proceedings. The Ninth International Symposium on. IEEE, 2000.

Steunebrink, B., Wang, P., Goertzel, B. Artificial General Intelligence. Springer, 2016. PDF

Spoelder, Hans JW, Renambot L, Germans D, et al. “Real-time interaction in VR with a distributed multi-agent system.” Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Sciences (2000). PDF

Van der Schaaf, T., Bal, H. E., Germans, D., Spoelder, H. J.. “Griz: experience with remote visualization over an optical grid.” Future Generation Computer Systems 19.6 (2003): 871-882. PDF

Van der Schaaf T, Renambot L, Germans D, Spoelder H, Bal H. Retained mode parallel rendering for scalable tiled displays. In Immersive Projection Technologies Symposium 2002PDF

Vepstas, L. “Structure in linguistics.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15.3 (2010): 363. PDF

Vos, Frans M., Germans, D., et al. “Real-time, adaptive measurement of corneal shapes.” Computing in Science & Engineering 4.2 (2002): 66-76. PDF

This page is under construction. 11 July 2018